Airway Cam Portal 877-EPIGLOTTIS
Video Library
Home About Airway Cam Dr. Richard Levitan FAQs calendar Links Contact Us
Practical Solutions for Emergency Airways
Learn about Anatomy, Imaging & Techniques Training Resources, Mannequins & Courses Buy Your Equipment Here
Learn Menu
Laryngeal Anatomy


Nasoendoscopy Anatomy

Stroboscopy Anatomy

Glidescope Anatomy

Laryngoscopy Video Anatomy


Laryngeal Pathology
Emergency Airway Management
Laryngoscopy Equipment
Techniques for Oral Intubation
Techniques for Nasal Intubation


Techniques for Nasal Intubation


View of indirect laryngoscopy from Henry Gray’s Anatomy of
the Human Body (1918)

Image #38 The perspective of indirect laryngoscopy is commonly used for drawings in intubation education materials, even though indirect (mirror) laryngoscopy is rarely performed in current practice.  A drawing of the larynx from this angle makes all the structures appear as if they are on the same plane. In fact, the epiglottis is at a much higher (more cranial) location than the posterior cartilages (a.k.a.. the arytenoids) and these are more cranial than the vocal cords, which are deep within the larynx. Full visualization of larynx as shown here is rare with direct laryngoscopy.


Note that the tongue and vallecula are anterior (upper part of drawing); the orientation of the larynx in this image is the same as during direct laryngoscopy.  The epiglottis is at the top, the apex of the vocal cords (where the cords come together at the anterior commissure) is also up top.


The true vocal cord is labeled as “vocal fold,” and the false vocal cord (a mucosal fold) is labeled as “vestibular fold.”


The aryepiglottic folds connect the arytenoid cartilages to the epiglottis on either side.  The arytenoids are also called the posterior cartilages, and they are comprised of the cuneiform and corniculate cartilages.


Between the posterior cartilages is the interarytenoid notch. This landmark is the most posterior aspect of the laryngeal inlet, and critical to recognize during difficult laryngoscopy and tracheal tube insertion.


Johann Czermak (right), a pioneer in laryngology, performing indirect, mirror laryngoscopy in 1865. Note his left hand, which is being used to apply pressure to the thyroid cartilage and displace the larynx posteriorly into the line of sight.



Lateral cross-sectional view of head and neck showing vertical relationship of tongue, epiglottis, and vocal cords

Fairman neck lateral

In this lateral hemisection of the head and neck it is evident that the epiglottis is located at base of tongue, and that it projects upward, well above level of vocal cords.  The epiglottis is “the secret” of the airway; it is connected to the tongue, and also part of the laryngeal inlet, and it is midline (right-left) in the airway.


The epiglottis is attached to hyoid bone through the hyoepiglottic ligament.


The esophagus is a potential space beginning behind cricoid cartilage and extending downward behind trachea through neck.


The Larynx and Laryngeal Inlet
Oblique Laryngeal InletV3

The larynx and laryngeal inlet (inset) as seen from an oblique, posterior perspective. Laryngeal inlet (black ring in inset) includes the epiglottis, the paired aryepiglottic folds, the paired posterior cartilages, and the interarytenoid notch.


Laryngeal Inlet and Hypopharynx

Posterior Fairman

Labeled posterior view of laryngeal inlet and hypopharynx with retraction of cervical esophagus. Inset shows inner larynx.


Bookmark and Share

Privacy | Terms & Conditions | Sitemap | STORE


DISCLAIMER:  The procedures discussed at this website, to be performed properly, rely on complex medical skills and should only be undertaken after formal instruction and hands-on clinical training with appropriate supervision, and after receiving professional certification and authorization to do so. The content presented herein is meant to serve as just one of many resources that trainees and health care professionals should consult in the course of the their skill acquisition and ongoing practice. Airway Cam Technologies, Inc., its authors, officers, agents and assigns, disclaim any and all responsibility for any adverse outcomes and or harmful acts committed by others persons who may have consulted this website or relied on information contained herein.


HomeAbout Airway CamDr. Richard LevitanFAQsCalendarLinksContact UsLEARN: Laryngeal AnatomyLaryngeal PathologyEmergency Airway ManagementLaryngoscopy/Intubation EquipmentTracheal Tube Design and DeliveryTechniques for Oral IntubationTechniques for Nasal IntubationSearch
TRAIN: Overall Approach to Airway TrainingTeaching AnatomyPracticing Mechanics of IntubationAirway Course in a BoxCustomized Airway CoursesAirway Training Course CalendarAirway Cam Videos Airway Cam & Other BooksOn-line Airway TrainingEQUIP: AirwayCam Books and DVDsTrucorp MannequinsEmergency Airway Kits
Rescue Intubation DevicesRescue Ventilation DevicesLaryngoscopesTubes-Stylets-BougiesAccessoriesVision Enhancement has been optimized by the Philadelphia SEO Company Zamolution